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Food Science Semester Test

True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
 

 1. 

The food needs of the growing world population have increased the demand for more food scientists.
 

 2. 

Food-borne illness results from consuming improperly prepared or stored foods.
 

 3. 

Food science is a basic science.
 

 4. 

Early explorers sometimes used human “guinea pigs” as food tasters.
 

 5. 

The most suitable animal for food tasting, often used by many explorers, was the guinea pig.
 

 6. 

Largely because of science, no one has ever died trying to determine if something is a food.
 

 7. 

The five senses are our most reliable means of identifying a food.
 

 8. 

Calories are a measure of the nutritional value of a food.
 

 9. 

Food labels are required to indicate the nutritional content of a product an a per serving basis.
 

 10. 

The major purpose of a food is to supply nutrition.
 

 11. 

The major nutrients are carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals.
 

 12. 

When dry ice “melts,” it goes directly from a solid state to a gaseous state in a process called osmosis.
 

 13. 

Refrigeration is the most effective means of preserving a food product.
 

 14. 

The palatability of a food is important because it has a strong effect on the food’s nutritional value.
 

 15. 

The more unsaturated fatty acids a lipid contains, the “softer” or more “oily” the lipid will be.
 

 16. 

The simplest life form known is a bacteria, which consists of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat.
 

 17. 

A precipitate is the material that remains after all solids have fallen out of a solution.
 

 18. 

Ice floats because water is among the few substances whose density in the solid state is greater than its density in the liquid state.
 

 19. 

Pectins are useful in food processing because of their ability to form gels.
 

 20. 

Two or more substances that can be mixed together are said to be immiscible.
 

 21. 

Food is most susceptible to contamination during freezing.
 

 22. 

Microorganisms that inflict illness on humans are known as pathogens.
 

 23. 

Microbiology is the branch of biology that deals with the structure and functions of microorganisms.
 

 24. 

Most of the molds commonly found on food reproduce asexually, by simple cell division.
 

 25. 

Aspartame is a food additive that can cause dangerous health problems for some people.
 

 26. 

Biochemical degradation and microbial spoilage of a food may use the same mechanisms.
 

 27. 

In the earliest days of chemical preservatives, sugar was added to salted meat to cut the salty taste.
 

 28. 

The three major sources of contamination in a food processing plant are people, processing equipment, and the plant environment.
 

 29. 

Water hardness is a measure of the presence of substances in water that form insoluble precipitates with soap.
 

 30. 

A beverage is any drinkable liquid not composed of water.
 

 31. 

Most dairy products begin with fluid milk as the basic raw material.
 

 32. 

Mineral water originally contained dissolved calcium carbonate from limestone rock.
 

 33. 

An orangeade contains more orange juice than an orange-flavored drink.
 

 34. 

The most important farmed fish species in the United States is catfish.
 

 35. 

A processed meat product is one whose structure has been altered either mechanically or chemically.
 

 36. 

In a supermarket, large retail cuts of meat are converted into wholesale cuts for purchase by consumers.
 

 37. 

The dehydration of frozen meat tissue is called freezer burn.
 

 38. 

The first phase of meat inspection is called post-mortem inspection because it occurs just before the death of the animal.
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 39. 

When an enzyme speeds up a chemical reaction, it is not ____________________.
a.
directly involved
c.
used up
b.
noticeable
d.
helpful
 

 40. 

A tomato ripens because the plant is trying to ____________________.
a.
become edible
c.
domesticate itself
b.
reproduce
d.
grow
 

 41. 

Microscopic organisms in the air help to break down food substances, speeding up the ____________________ of a food.
a.
preservation
c.
shelf life
b.
domestication
d.
deterioration
 

 42. 

Because of the division of labor in early hunter-gatherer societies, ____________________ probably discovered the edibility of various plant materials like corn and potatoes.
a.
hunters
c.
women
b.
men
d.
children
 

 43. 

The only true means humans have of determining whether something is a food or not is to ____________________.
a.
analyze it in a lab
c.
eat it and see what happens
b.
smell it and feel its texture
d.
give it to a guinea pig
 

 44. 

Cats are not good food tasters for humans because they are ____________________.
a.
difficult
c.
herbivores
b.
carnivores
d.
omnivores
 

 45. 

Birds have a ____________________, an organ that contains pebble-like material used to grind up seeds prior to digestion.
a.
gullet
c.
stomach
b.
organ grinder
d.
gizzard
 

 46. 

Human beings are ____________________.
a.
omnivores
c.
carnivores
b.
herbivores
d.
hunter-gatherers
 

 47. 

____________________ is the most common example of a complex carbohydrate.
a.
Starch
c.
Sugar
b.
Fiber
d.
Glycogen
 

 48. 

An eight-ounce glass of water has ____________________ calories.
a.
0 calories
c.
16 calories per ounce
b.
425 calories
d.
8 calories
 

 49. 

All digestion and nutrient absorption in the body occur in the ____________________.
a.
small intestine
c.
esophagus
b.
large intestine
d.
stomach
 

 50. 

Obesity, or overweightness, in the United States has ____________________ over the last ten years.
a.
increased
c.
stayed about the same
b.
decreased
d.
been eliminated
 

 51. 

Another name for using ionizing radiation to process food is ____________________.
a.
osmosis
c.
cold sterilization
b.
gamma radiating
d.
heat processing
 

 52. 

Liquid added to a can or jar before canning a fruit or vegetable is called canner’s ____________________.
a.
retort
c.
brine
b.
hot fill
d.
fluid
 

 53. 

____________________ is fluid that accumulates on the outside of a frozen food product when it is thawed.
a.
Drip
c.
Osmosis
b.
Freezer burn
d.
Aseptic liquid
 

 54. 

____________________ is a heat treatment that destroys all pathogenic microorganisms in a food, but does not destroy all spoilage microorganisms.
a.
Homogenization
b.
Ultrahigh-temperature pasteurization
c.
Blanching
d.
Pasteurization
 

 55. 

Which of the following is NOT a method of food preservation?
a.
canning
c.
freezing
b.
storing
d.
irradiating
 

 56. 

In the body, enzymes function to ____________________ the energy requirements of chemical reactions.
a.
decrease
c.
stabilize
b.
eliminate
d.
increase
 

 57. 

Carbohydrates consist of a chain of ____________________ molecules linked together.
a.
sucrose
c.
simple sugar
b.
disaccharide
d.
protein
 

 58. 

Pioneers used the chemistry of lipids to produce ____________________ from animal fat.
a.
soap
c.
alkali
b.
butter
d.
cooking oil
 

 59. 

Water easily dissolves salts because of its high ____________________, which represents the ability to decrease the force between charges of matter in the medium.
a.
heat of fusion
c.
solvation sphere
b.
dielectric constant
d.
heat of vaporization
 

 60. 

The simplest molecules in a food, ____________________, are most important in food physics because of the way their changes in form influence foods.
a.
carbohydrates
c.
water
b.
lipids
d.
proteins
 

 61. 

The temperature at which an ignitable concentration of vapor develops above the surface of a heated oil or liquid fat is its ____________________.
a.
flash point
c.
fire point
b.
melting point
d.
smoke point
 

 62. 

____________________ is the degree of availability of water in a food.
a.
Equilibrium relative humidity
c.
Water availability
b.
Water activity
d.
Osmotic pressure
 

 63. 

When a food is frozen, the individual proteins always retain at least a single layer of unfrozen ____________________ molecules around them to protect them.
a.
microbe
c.
carbohydrate
b.
water
d.
lipid
 

 64. 

To survive a hostile environment or await better conditions, some bacteria have the ability to ____________________, or form a hard shell around themselves.
a.
germinate
c.
fission
b.
encapsulate
d.
heterotrophy
 

 65. 

____________________ is the best and least expensive way of destroying microbes.
a.
Freezing
c.
Radiation
b.
Controlling moisture levels
d.
Heat
 

 66. 

Because of its ____________________, food is a good place for microbes to grow.
a.
volatility
c.
nutrients
b.
nooks and crannies
d.
temperature
 

 67. 

Every 18°F (10°C) that the temperature of a food is reduced slows chemical and biochemical reactions by almost ____________________.
a.
three quarters
c.
one third
b.
one half
d.
two thirds
 

 68. 

Which of the following individuals did NOT play a role in the establishment of the Federal Food and Drug Act of 1906?
a.
Upton Sinclair
c.
President Theodore Roosevelt
b.
Representative James J. Delaney
d.
Dr. Harvey Washington Wiley
 

 69. 

Cooling fruit down to slow the process of deterioration is a ____________________ method of preservation.
a.
synergistic
c.
nonchemical
b.
chemical
d.
biochemical
 

 70. 

Archaeologists have shown that the development of our civilization is related to our ability to ____________________ food for longer and longer periods of time.
a.
hunt
c.
eat
b.
grow
d.
store
 

 71. 

GRAS stands for ____________________.
a.
genuinely realistic artificial substance
c.
general requirements all satisfied
b.
grade reduced as stated
d.
generally recognized as safe
 

 72. 

Because of historical doubt about the contents of certain food products, ____________________ were established by the FDA to provide quality assurance.
a.
return address labels
c.
nutrition facts labels
b.
standards of identity
d.
chemophobias
 

 73. 

A ____________________ hazard is generally a microbe such as a bacterium, virus, or parasite.
a.
biological
c.
deleterious
b.
physical
d.
chemical
 

 74. 

In a food processing plant, ____________________ are probably the biggest source of contamination.
a.
employees’ hands
b.
food preparation surfaces
c.
tools and equipment used to handle food
d.
employees’ feet and shoes
 

 75. 

Procedures developed over time to ensure the production of safe and wholesome food and to provide a safe working environment are called ____________________ practices.
a.
sanitization
c.
good manufacturing
b.
post-production
d.
facility management
 

 76. 

A food-preparation surface that will not rust or deteriorate as a result of continuous applications of water is said to be ____________________ resistant.
a.
aquatically
c.
continually
b.
corrosion
d.
sanitizer
 

 77. 

Which of the following was the first sports drink?
a.
Gatorade®
c.
Aquafina™
b.
Perrier™
d.
Dasani™
 

 78. 

The document that defines all of a product’s characteristics in detail is called the ____________________.
a.
paper formulation
c.
product specifications
b.
documented characteristics
d.
product definition
 

 79. 

Which of the following is NOT a step in the processing of raw milk?
a.
mineralization
c.
vitamin fortification
b.
flavor treatment
d.
pasteurization
 

 80. 

Which process produces alcohol?
a.
reverse osmosis
c.
pasteurization
b.
brewing
d.
fermentation
 

 81. 

Fish is often more expensive because it is ____________________ than chicken, beef, and pork.
a.
fresher
c.
healthier
b.
more perishable
d.
more processed
 

 82. 

Which of the following types of hams is sold with no cure mix?
a.
green ham
c.
fresh ham
b.
massaged ham
d.
dry-cured ham
 

 83. 

Preparing meat products for consumer appeal, promoting them, and selling them is called ____________________.
a.
meat wholesaling
c.
meat processing
b.
meat merchandising
d.
meat comminution
 

 84. 

Which of the following is NOT a potential hazard in the meat processing industry?
a.
Formulaic bacterium
c.
Clostridium botulinum
b.
Escherichia coli
d.
Trichinella spiralis
 

 85. 

In frankfurter production, ice is often added into the chopping mixture to ensure that ____________________ will form.
a.
a cure mix
c.
an emulsion
b.
a skin
d.
a cellulose casing
 

Matching
 
 
Match each term with the correct definition below.
a.
carnivore
d.
herbivore
b.
food
e.
hunter-gatherer society
c.
food attribute
f.
omnivore
 

 86. 

animal that consumes flesh, or other animals, only
 

 87. 

animal that eats both plant material and animal flesh
 

 88. 

group of humans who found food by hunting animals and gathering plant material
 

 89. 

something that is eaten, drunk, or absorbed for growth, repair, and life maintenance
 

 90. 

one of the conditions or components of a food substance
 

 91. 

animal that depends entirely on plant material for food
 
 
Match each term with the correct definition below.
a.
antioxidant
f.
lipase
b.
caramelization
g.
lipid
c.
disaccharide
h.
monosaccharide
d.
hydrophilic
i.
pH
e.
hydrophobic
j.
triacylglyceride
 

 92. 

a simple sugar such as glucose, fructose, or galactose
 

 93. 

molecule that interacts with the free radical formation process
 

 94. 

reaction produced when sucrose is heated to high temperatures
 

 95. 

Latin term that means “water loving”
 

 96. 

carbohydrate (such as sucrose, lactose, or maltose) made of two simple sugars
 

 97. 

a fat, regardless of its state
 

 98. 

Latin term that means “water fearing”
 

 99. 

glycerol molecule with three fatty acids (acyls) attached to it
 

 100. 

enzyme that attacks lipids
 

 101. 

negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration of a substance
 
 
Match each term to the correct definition below.
a.
agar
f.
emulsion
b.
casein
g.
synergism
c.
collagen
h.
turgor
d.
colloid
i.
viscosity
e.
emulsifiers
j.
winterized
 

 102. 

chilled down during processing to precipitate saturated fatty acids
 

 103. 

mutual assistance between two cooperators for their mutual benefit
 

 104. 

particle too big to pass through parchment but too small to settle out of solution
 

 105. 

layer of protein in milk that surrounds the lipid and keeps it in suspension
 

 106. 

colloidal dispersion of oil in water or water in oil that is aided by a surface-active agent
 

 107. 

protein found in the connective tissue of animals
 

 108. 

molecules that keep two immiscible liquids together in an emulsion
 

 109. 

resistance to flow due to internal friction within a substance
 

 110. 

gel-forming polysaccharide made from seaweed
 

 111. 

internal water pressure within cells that makes vegetables crisp
 
 
Match each term with the correct definition below.
a.
botulism
f.
mesophile
b.
facultative anaerobe
g.
mycelium
c.
fission
h.
mycology
d.
heterotrophic
i.
psychrophile
e.
hyphae
j.
thermophile
 

 112. 

the study of fungi and molds
 

 113. 

microorganism that grows at ordinary temperatures
 

 114. 

organism that thrives at high temperatures
 

 115. 

dreaded food-borne intoxication that affects the central nervous system
 

 116. 

the splitting of a cell into two identical daughter cells; how bacteria reproduce
 

 117. 

organism that thrives at refrigerator temperatures
 

 118. 

organisms that use oxygen if it is present but can thrive in a partial vacuum
 

 119. 

a large mass of hyphae
 

 120. 

filaments grown between the cells of many fungal species
 

 121. 

able to use many different components of a substrate as sources of nutrients
 



 
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