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Food Science Semester Test

True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
 

 1. 

The food needs of the growing world population have increased the demand for more food scientists.
 

 2. 

Food-borne illness results from consuming improperly prepared or stored foods.
 

 3. 

Early explorers sometimes used human “guinea pigs” as food tasters.
 

 4. 

The most suitable animal for food tasting, often used by many explorers, was the guinea pig.
 

 5. 

Largely because of science, no one has ever died trying to determine if something is a food.
 

 6. 

The five senses are our most reliable means of identifying a food.
 

 7. 

Calories are a measure of the nutritional value of a food.
 

 8. 

The major purpose of a food is to supply nutrition.
 

 9. 

The major nutrients are carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals.
 

 10. 

When dry ice “melts,” it goes directly from a solid state to a gaseous state in a process called osmosis.
 

 11. 

Refrigeration is the most effective means of preserving a food product.
 

 12. 

The palatability of a food is important because it has a strong effect on the food’s nutritional value.
 

 13. 

The more unsaturated fatty acids a lipid contains, the “softer” or more “oily” the lipid will be.
 

 14. 

The simplest life form known is a bacteria, which consists of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat.
 

 15. 

A precipitate is the material that remains after all solids have fallen out of a solution.
 

 16. 

Ice floats because water is among the few substances whose density in the solid state is greater than its density in the liquid state.
 

 17. 

Pectins are useful in food processing because of their ability to form gels.
 

 18. 

Two or more substances that can be mixed together are said to be immiscible.
 

 19. 

Food is most susceptible to contamination during freezing.
 

 20. 

Microorganisms that inflict illness on humans are known as pathogens.
 

 21. 

Microbiology is the branch of biology that deals with the structure and functions of microorganisms.
 

 22. 

Most of the molds commonly found on food reproduce asexually, by simple cell division.
 

 23. 

Aspartame is a food additive that can cause dangerous health problems for some people.
 

 24. 

Biochemical degradation and microbial spoilage of a food may use the same mechanisms.
 

 25. 

In the earliest days of chemical preservatives, sugar was added to salted meat to cut the salty taste.
 

 26. 

The three major sources of contamination in a food processing plant are people, processing equipment, and the plant environment.
 

 27. 

Water hardness is a measure of the presence of substances in water that form insoluble precipitates with soap.
 

 28. 

A beverage is any drinkable liquid not composed of water.
 

 29. 

Most dairy products begin with fluid milk as the basic raw material.
 

 30. 

Mineral water originally contained dissolved calcium carbonate from limestone rock.
 

 31. 

An orangeade contains more orange juice than an orange-flavored drink.
 

 32. 

The most important farmed fish species in the United States is catfish.
 

 33. 

A processed meat product is one whose structure has been altered either mechanically or chemically.
 

 34. 

In a supermarket, large retail cuts of meat are converted into wholesale cuts for purchase by consumers.
 

 35. 

The dehydration of frozen meat tissue is called freezer burn.
 

 36. 

The first phase of meat inspection is called post-mortem inspection because it occurs just before the death of the animal.
 

 37. 

A staple food is the principal or main commodity of a country’s agricultural production.
 

 38. 

Pasta is a leavened product.
 

 39. 

American ready-to-eat cereals are very popular in Japan as afternoon snack foods.
 

 40. 

Enriched flour is flour that contains mold growth inhibitors such as calcium and sodium propionate.
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 41. 

When an enzyme speeds up a chemical reaction, it is not ____________________.
a.
directly involved
c.
used up
b.
noticeable
d.
helpful
 

 42. 

A tomato ripens because the plant is trying to ____________________.
a.
become edible
c.
domesticate itself
b.
reproduce
d.
grow
 

 43. 

Microscopic organisms in the air help to break down food substances, speeding up the ____________________ of a food.
a.
preservation
c.
shelf life
b.
domestication
d.
deterioration
 

 44. 

Because of the division of labor in early hunter-gatherer societies, ____________________ probably discovered the edibility of various plant materials like corn and potatoes.
a.
hunters
c.
women
b.
men
d.
children
 

 45. 

The only true means humans have of determining whether something is a food or not is to ____________________.
a.
analyze it in a lab
c.
eat it and see what happens
b.
smell it and feel its texture
d.
give it to a guinea pig
 

 46. 

Cats are not good food tasters for humans because they are ____________________.
a.
difficult
c.
herbivores
b.
carnivores
d.
omnivores
 

 47. 

Human beings are ____________________.
a.
omnivores
c.
carnivores
b.
herbivores
d.
hunter-gatherers
 

 48. 

____________________ is the most common example of a complex carbohydrate.
a.
Starch
c.
Sugar
b.
Fiber
d.
Glycogen
 

 49. 

An eight-ounce glass of water has ____________________ calories.
a.
0 calories
c.
16 calories per ounce
b.
425 calories
d.
8 calories
 

 50. 

All digestion and nutrient absorption in the body occur in the ____________________.
a.
small intestine
c.
esophagus
b.
large intestine
d.
stomach
 

 51. 

Obesity, or overweightness, in the United States has ____________________ over the last ten years.
a.
increased
c.
stayed about the same
b.
decreased
d.
been eliminated
 

 52. 

Another name for using ionizing radiation to process food is ____________________.
a.
osmosis
c.
cold sterilization
b.
gamma radiating
d.
heat processing
 

 53. 

Liquid added to a can or jar before canning a fruit or vegetable is called canner’s ____________________.
a.
retort
c.
brine
b.
hot fill
d.
fluid
 

 54. 

____________________ is fluid that accumulates on the outside of a frozen food product when it is thawed.
a.
Drip
c.
Osmosis
b.
Freezer burn
d.
Aseptic liquid
 

 55. 

Which of the following is NOT a method of food preservation?
a.
canning
c.
freezing
b.
storing
d.
irradiating
 

 56. 

In the body, enzymes function to ____________________ the energy requirements of chemical reactions.
a.
decrease
c.
stabilize
b.
eliminate
d.
increase
 

 57. 

Carbohydrates consist of a chain of ____________________ molecules linked together.
a.
sucrose
c.
simple sugar
b.
disaccharide
d.
protein
 

 58. 

Pioneers used the chemistry of lipids to produce ____________________ from animal fat.
a.
soap
c.
alkali
b.
butter
d.
cooking oil
 

 59. 

The simplest molecules in a food, ____________________, are most important in food physics because of the way their changes in form influence foods.
a.
carbohydrates
c.
water
b.
lipids
d.
proteins
 

 60. 

The temperature at which an ignitable concentration of vapor develops above the surface of a heated oil or liquid fat is its ____________________.
a.
flash point
c.
fire point
b.
melting point
d.
smoke point
 

 61. 

____________________ is the degree of availability of water in a food.
a.
Equilibrium relative humidity
c.
Water availability
b.
Water activity
d.
Osmotic pressure
 

 62. 

When a food is frozen, the individual proteins always retain at least a single layer of unfrozen ____________________ molecules around them to protect them.
a.
microbe
c.
carbohydrate
b.
water
d.
lipid
 

 63. 

To survive a hostile environment or await better conditions, some bacteria have the ability to ____________________, or form a hard shell around themselves.
a.
germinate
c.
fission
b.
encapsulate
d.
heterotrophy
 

 64. 

____________________ is the best and least expensive way of destroying microbes.
a.
Freezing
c.
Radiation
b.
Controlling moisture levels
d.
Heat
 

 65. 

Because of its ____________________, food is a good place for microbes to grow.
a.
volatility
c.
nutrients
b.
nooks and crannies
d.
temperature
 

 66. 

Cooling fruit down to slow the process of deterioration is a ____________________ method of preservation.
a.
synergistic
c.
nonchemical
b.
chemical
d.
biochemical
 

 67. 

Archaeologists have shown that the development of our civilization is related to our ability to ____________________ food for longer and longer periods of time.
a.
hunt
c.
eat
b.
grow
d.
store
 

 68. 

GRAS stands for ____________________.
a.
genuinely realistic artificial substance
c.
general requirements all satisfied
b.
grade reduced as stated
d.
generally recognized as safe
 

 69. 

Because of historical doubt about the contents of certain food products, ____________________ were established by the FDA to provide quality assurance.
a.
return address labels
c.
nutrition facts labels
b.
standards of identity
d.
chemophobias
 

 70. 

A ____________________ hazard is generally a microbe such as a bacterium, virus, or parasite.
a.
biological
c.
deleterious
b.
physical
d.
chemical
 

 71. 

In a food processing plant, ____________________ are probably the biggest source of contamination.
a.
employees’ hands
b.
food preparation surfaces
c.
tools and equipment used to handle food
d.
employees’ feet and shoes
 

 72. 

Procedures developed over time to ensure the production of safe and wholesome food and to provide a safe working environment are called ____________________ practices.
a.
sanitization
c.
good manufacturing
b.
post-production
d.
facility management
 

 73. 

Which of the following was the first sports drink?
a.
Gatorade®
c.
Aquafina™
b.
Perrier™
d.
Dasani™
 

 74. 

Which of the following is NOT a step in the processing of raw milk?
a.
mineralization
c.
vitamin fortification
b.
flavor treatment
d.
pasteurization
 

 75. 

Which process produces alcohol?
a.
reverse osmosis
c.
pasteurization
b.
brewing
d.
fermentation
 

 76. 

Fish is often more expensive because it is ____________________ than chicken, beef, and pork.
a.
fresher
c.
healthier
b.
more perishable
d.
more processed
 

 77. 

Preparing meat products for consumer appeal, promoting them, and selling them is called ____________________.
a.
meat wholesaling
c.
meat processing
b.
meat merchandising
d.
meat comminution
 

 78. 

Which of the following is NOT a potential hazard in the meat processing industry?
a.
Formulaic bacterium
c.
Clostridium botulinum
b.
Escherichia coli
d.
Trichinella spiralis
 

 79. 

Which of the following is NOT a common food grain?
a.
grain sorghum
c.
rice
b.
oats
d.
barley
 

 80. 

The ____________________ is the part of the cereal grain used to make the paste or dough that will become breakfast cereal.
a.
shell
c.
endosperm
b.
bran
d.
germ
 

 81. 

The bread-making term for the fermentation process, or the conversion of a carbohydrate into carbon dioxide and water, is ____________________.
a.
leavening
c.
turbomilling
b.
kneading
d.
carbohydration
 

 82. 

The dough used to make pasta is technically called ____________________.
a.
air-leavened dough
c.
alimentary paste
b.
chemically leavened dough
d.
yeast-leavened dough
 

 83. 

Which of the following pieces of milling equipment grinds the grain’s endosperm fragments into flour?
a.
the proofer
c.
the reduction rollers
b.
the turbomills
d.
the break rollers
 



 
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